96.5AI2O3 Epoxy Automotive Oil Level Sensor Ceramic Circuit Board Assembly
One of the main reasons why you would avoid fr4 vs. a ceramic circuit board or other MCPCB board has to do with heat transfer. Metal cores like aluminum nitride and beryllium oxide are extremely thermally conductive. fr4 PCB material is not. If you are using your boards in applications where heat is a real issue, like LED lighting, you will probably want to move away from standard fr4 boards towards ceramic boards or other metal core PCBs, as metal core boards can more easily carry excess heat away from hot spots that can ultimately damage the board by reducing the life of semiconductor junctions.
Other metal core PCB materials in addition aluminum and beryllium can include copper and steel alloy. Steel alloys provide a stiffness that you will not get with copper and aluminum, but are not as effective at heat transfer. Copper has the best ability to transfer and dissipate heat as part of your printed circuit boards, but it is somewhat expensive — so companies on a budget producing or purchasing many printed circuit boards will often opt for aluminum as a cheaper but still highly effective heat-dissipating alternative to fr4 boards.
It’s important to understand that there are many circumstances where the use of an fr4 board is indicated and perfectly acceptable. Certain applications, however, will call for a ceramic or other metal core PCB to avoid putting your product at risk. These include:
LED lights, especially spotlights and high-current LEDs
Cars, especially power controllers, variable optical systems, exchange converters and power regulators for cars
Industrial power equipment
Semiconductor refrigeration devices
High power transistors and transistor arrays
Solar cell substrates
Other power applications, like DC converters and regulators
Comparison Between ceramic and other material: