Designing cost effective printed circuit boards, there are several key challenges in the PCB.
While the initial goal may be to make small printed boards as possible, this may not be the most affordable route for the entire system. Reducing the size of the board is likely to result in more complex, multi-layer boards that can cost thousands of dollars for further electromagnetic problems.
Electromagnetic interference or electromagnetic compatibility EMC performance is a key factor in board design. Ensuring that the end device meets local EMC and interference requirements can be a costly process. If you cut corners and design and manufacture PCBs, some cost savings can be seen shortly. If component coupling or radiation may require expensive repairs, let the system pass the EMC conformance test.
The four-layer board is considered to be the best balance between EMI protection and motherboard layout. It is often the same performance, using two-layer tools for online PCBs, such as DesignSpark PCB design. This provides a significant reduction in board production costs but does not affect the test case to do further downline.
The signal return path is the biggest design challenge to deal with in the PCB layout. It will be difficult to route back to the ground below the signal pin connections on each tracking controller but this is exactly what the ground plane of the four-layer board does. No matter where the trace runs, it is always the ground return path running under it.
The closest approach to the two planes in the ground plane comes from the grid ground to reduce EMI radiation from signal traces. Reducing the return of the signal tracking signal below the ring area routing is the most efficient way to deal with this problem, so creating a ground grid is the most important thing to do in the PCB layout.
Grid to build aircraft
Grid is the most critical design technique for EMC in two-layer boards. Much like the utility grid, this is the trace of the ground between the network orthogonal connections. It effectively creates a ground plane that provides the same noise reduction as a four-layer board. This simulated ground plane is used to provide EMC improvements by providing each signal trace under the return path of the ground four-layer board and reducing the impedance between the microcontroller and voltage regulation.
The mesh creates a network connection between the PCBs by expanding any ground traces and using ground fill patterns. For example, polychlorinated biphenyls have upper traces of vertical operation and a large portion of bottom traces of operating levels. This has been done for a return trip with a direct down signal. First, each ground track is expanded to fill as much empty PCB space as possible. Then, all the remaining empty space is full of the ground.
The goal is to have as many grids as possible on the two-layer board. Small changes in the layout can allow another connection to expand the mesh.
Board partitioning is another technology that can be used to reduce noise and electromagnetic interference on the board and therefore reduce the need for additional PCB layers. Its meaning is basically the same as the floor plan, which is the process of defining the general position of the component on the blank PCB before any traces. The board partition is a bit far away because it includes processes like functions that are placed in the same area rather than on a board that mixes them together. High-speed logic, including microcontrollers, is placed with power and slow components located further and further away, and analog components are still further. This can have a significant impact on the EMC performance of the PCB.
With this arrangement, high-speed logic has fewer opportunities to contaminate other signal traces. It is especially important that the oscillator tank cycle should be kept away from analog circuits, low speed signals and connectors. This applies to the space inside the cash box of the board of directors and the board of directors. Do not fold the oscillator or the microcomputer after the assembly is completed, as they can pick up the noise and carry the cable assembly design elsewhere. This has an impact on the placement of the connector head on the PCB design.
PCB design tool
There are many tools available that can even provide PCB design and EMC in mind. One is the DesignSpark PCB tool, and the latest version includes an online design rule check, Congo (Gold), to eliminate the problem during the design process, rather than waiting to do a batch check. This is especially useful for low cost optimization, the Executive Board, and any conflicts or errors that can be immediately flagged can be rebutted. Of course the inspection is just as good as the design documents, and more input from the engineer is critical to the problems that may arise, but it helps to speed up the process, so more time can be spent on key areas.
In version 5 of the DesignSpark PCB, the DRC will check for any items that have been added or moved due to interactive editing operations. For example, this includes all tracks added manually when attached to a moved component or all songs and holes.
Version 5 also adds bus support so that common tracks can be grouped together for easy transfer. Rather than connecting them to each pin required and drawing all the connections to the design, designers can take less of the messy design of the bus. The designer adds a connection from the component pin to the carrier signal bus.
Figure 1: Adding a schematic bus to DesignSpark PCB version 5
The bus can be turned on or off. The closed bus is the network name along the bus, the bus is connected to the bus, and the open bus can carry any network when it can be used where only those predefined sets within the network.
And of course this makes sense for routing buses, it can also be used to route boards around other hubs. This can help make the design simpler and clearer with the number of noisy traces surrounding the ground traces using the bus schematic function and can help cut noise across the board. The trick is never to be on the board, and it may be difficult to run noisy traces on the outer edges of the smaller two-layer board. Keeping non-noisy traces from the area on the motherboard, they can pick up sounds such as connectors, oscillating circuits, relays, and relay drivers to help reduce problems.
The simplicity and low cost required to design a board may be more difficult than the extravagant layers.
Some electromagnetic interference problems can be dealt with decoupling capacitors and ferrite beads to suppress any signal, possibly radiation, but this adds to the complexity of the design and manufacturing costs. If EMI/EMC can be minimized through good design, using partitions and conscious crosstalk, then the same level of shielding for the power and ground line mesh methods is possible with a two- or six-layer design of two-layer boards. This both reduces costs and enables the board, but should also improve yield and reliability including PCB EMC performance, further reducing costs over the life of the equipment.